This chapter highlights the important role that subnational actions can play in developing and advancing green growth, and in parallel has explored some of the key challenges in integrating national and subnational efforts to achieve this. Although we can learn much from cases of good practice, it is clear that we also need to pay more attention to the underlying preconditions for their successful implementation, which is often context specific. Attempts to transfer good practice that do not also take into account or replicate the preconditions for sustained implementation are much less likely to succeed.
There is now fast growing international recognition of the benefits of improving integration between national and subnational actors to address the green growth challenges which national governments cannot effectively face alone. If these benefits are to be fully realized, there are a number of areas where further developing our understanding may be helpful. These include:
• How should good practice implementation differ by size of subnational government and what are the potential limits of green growth strategies at the subnational level?
• What factors prevent the development, take-up, successful implementation or scaling up of good practice?
• What might be the optimal allocation of responsibility among national and subnational governments under different political, economic and social contexts?
• What are the most effective approaches for engaging with key stakeholder groups such as private companies and investors?
Addressing these questions will help to ensure that efforts to improve the integration between national and subnational actors are further improved. Where the practices highlighted in this chapter are effectively employed, it is clear that groundbreaking approaches to green growth can be enabled to emerge at the subnational level, which in turn will make a substantial contribution to delivering green growth at both national and global scales.