Subnational governments may lack technical expertise. Capacity building has therefore been identified as a key measure for enabling green growth. National and international subnational networks play a significant role in providing such capacity building and advancing implementation on the ground.
The US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) provides technical assistance to States and local governments to assist in implementation of subnational climate and energy plans. This program provides technical assistance, peer exchange opportunities, analytical tools, and outreach support to state, local, and tribal governments. Using these resources, state and local governments can develop policies and programs that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, lower energy costs, improve air quality and public health, and help achieve economic development goals. Some resources include best practice guidance, policy maps, competitive grant funding opportunities, and searchable resource databases (EPA, 2013).
While additional allocations of public funding may be needed for subnational governments to implement its own action plans and public investment, catalyzing green growth means mobilizing much larger flow of private investment sources such as sovereign wealth funds, equity investors and banks, as well as international financial institutions. Subnational governments are seeking to enable this flow through supportive political decisions, co-funding, and new approaches such as those led by the R20 – Regions of Climate Action – to overcome barriers to investment by bringing together subnational decision makers, private sector technology providers and investors (R20, 2014).