As noted by Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General, at Rio+20, achieving sustainable development and green growth requires an “extraordinary mobilization […] of corporate leaders, civil society groups, ordinary citizens and others clamoring for change” (United Nations, 2012). This chapter analyzes how public private collaboration (PPC) can achieve such broad mobilization in achieving green growth objectives; and
what PPC approaches have been most successful in mobilizing private sector leadership and action.
The case for collaboration is that it “creates synergies between governments and private participants, allowing them together to produce more than the sum of what their separate efforts would yield” (Donahue and Zeckhauser, 2011). However, PPCs may not always be successful or the best solution and should be carefully designed. Collaborative initiatives often seek to overcome specific barriers that impede partners’ from achieving their goals. In particular, with increasing resource constraints, governments and business look for support from other stakeholders to overcome barriers such as lack of information, capital, technologies, and skills (3GF, 2012). A PPC may also be specifically driven by the cost-savings potential of contracting private entities to perform tasks at lower costs than the public sector.
This chapter explores how PPC can support green growth, and the lessons and success factors in practice. Studies on green growth (World Bank, 2012; Baietti, 2013; and World Bank and PPIAF, 2012) highlight a number of possible areas where collaboration can support green growth, including innovation, natural resource management, green and climate resilient infrastructure, resource efficiency and productivity, and transparency and disclosure such as green accounting metrics, labels, reporting protocols or standards. This chapter explores three of these areas:
In addition to these three areas, enhancing resource efficiency and productivity and enhanced transparency and disclosure are also important areas for green growth extensively explored in other studies. However, due to space and resource limitations, PPCs in these areas are not addressed in this chapter.
Cases examined in this chapter include:
Relationships between government and the private sector can range from economy-wide government policies that set the framework for private investments to project-specific engagements. For the purpose of this chapter, three archetypes of collaboration are considered:
Figure 2 illustrates how these three archetypes are characterized by different degrees of business and government discretion.